07 Feb

Where and How Do the Playing Cards


The inside of the process or how the playing cards are made

First cards appeared in the Middle Ages. The main countries mentioned in the chronicles are China, India, Asia and Korea. In Europe, they appeared much later and were not widely distributed at first, as they were subject to constant prohibitions. Especially from the church.

At that time they were made of different materials, from stone to papyrus. Today, the options, as cards are made, are simply mass. Let’s look at the most common modern materials for the production of a deck.

  • Paper (cardboard)
  • Plastic
  • Vinyl

Playing cards made of cardboard

The most common and cheapest raw materials in this area. Carton decks are manufactured using three main technologies:

  • lithography
    a method of flat printing, which is based on the physical and chemical process of obtaining an impression from a stone and the absorption of special lithographic ink; /li>

  • photolithography
    a method of obtaining a given pattern on the surface of the desired material (includes several complex technological processes: electrodeposition, etching, vacuum spraying, sandblasting)
  • gravure printing (another name for intaglio)
    the use of a special printing plate for image acquisition and printing.

The main raw material component in the manufacture of paper pictures – acetylcellulose polymer. It is a thin polymer film, which goes through all three stages of processing, laminated and turned into a playing card.

This is important! Paper cards are definitely cheaper. However, their quality is not too high, and they are quickly wiped and become unusable.

Making a deck of plastic

It’s the same technology as for paper cards. Except that the raw material component of acetylcellulose polymer is covered with a dense layer of plastic on top, which makes the product more beautiful and reliable. They are no longer so crumpled, deformed and dirty. They practically do not muddy and last a long time. But their cost is also an order of magnitude higher than paper ones.

This is important! The thicker the plastic layer on the cards, the more expensive and high-quality they are.

The leading manufacturer of high quality plastic cards is American company Gemaco.

Thanks to a thorough process of research and development, Gemaco has become a major manufacturer and innovator in the global plastic card market. These plastic playing cards have no analogues all over the world nowadays. In addition, the cards of this brand have an original and exclusive design, which also makes them incomparable with any other. And, certainly, the quality of plastic cards is always one step higher than any other types of playing cards. These cards are made of a paper and covered with a layer of plastic that makes them strong and prevents wear and tears. Quality of cards with a plastic covering depends on a thickness of such covering. As a rule, the more expensive a deck of cards, the thicker a layer of plastic covering, and, accordingly, service life of cards is.

Making cards from vinyl material

The most common cards for home use due to their wide availability. The manufacturing process follows the steps described earlier. Raw material is vinyl. The result is the following: the cards are quite durable, inexpensive, but they are very easy to damage by mechanical action.


How to make playing cards with your own hands: easy and fast.

Few people know that good playing cards can be made with their own hands. Use the most common things that are in almost every home. Tired of the monotonous deck of cards and you want something out of the ordinary?

I offer 2 simple and interesting variants. To get a great result to work you need to start in a great mood. And, of course, you need to connect a little fantasy! So, how to make playing cards with your hands?

Way one: make cards from cardboard.

The easiest and cheapest option. For cardboard playing cards you need: dense cardboard, colored paper, scissors, glue, ruler, printer and Photoshop program. First decide on the design of the deck.

Step 1: It’s best to “draw” a drawing in Photoshop. Basically, if you do not have time or desire, you can use a ready-made template.

There are plenty of options on the Internet. You need to choose the best one. Next step: print the templates on colored paper. Carefully cut out the cards. The ruler will help you.

It is best to use special office scissors.

Step 2. Prepare the cards yourself. Once again specify: the cardboard should be thick and preferably white. Although, of course, you can also use cardboard from under the boxes. Stick color prints on the ready cards. Glue can be used usual, like “pencil”.

Step 3. Send the cards to “dry”. That is, the ready deck should be left to dry for about an hour. In that time, the glue will dry well. Yeah, and you can make a box for the cards. You can also use cardboard and glue for that. If you want, you can use coloured paper or ordinary markers.

Method two: scratch the card

This option is much better and more interesting. First of all, the cards turn out to be wear-resistant. Secondly, this deck looks much more spectacular. Before work prepare: scratch cards, office paper, double-sided tape, adhesive sheets (stickers), marker of one or more colors, glue “pencil” and laminator.

Step 1: Glue each scratch card with white paper cut out in advance. Put the blanks aside for about 20-30 minutes.

Step 2. While the cards are drying, draw the card suits on stickers. Fine, if you have 2 markers: black and red. If you draw well, you can draw classic cards. Like the lady, the king, the ace. But the easiest thing to do is print them out and stick them on stickers.

Step 3. Stick the sticker to the card with double-sided tape. Just in case, leave the cards for a couple more hours. Don’t rub the deck trying to figure out what your result is!

Step 4. Run the cards through the laminator. The result is a great “plastic cards” with a unique design.

Play cards with your own hands: a few useful tips

When making cards, remember that the deck must be not only beautiful, but also of high quality. It is good, if the cards will not pass water, slide on the table. Also, the cards should not be too fragile. To make the result not only pleasant, but also surprising, look through the Internet various tutorial videos. The video will help you decide on the size and type of cards.

28 Jan

Most Interesting Facts About Casinos And Gambling

What game has the worst odds in a casino?

Some of the casinos have weird odds for a lot of their games. One of the better knowns is the jackpot in the roulette game at a casino in Vegas. With some games, they don’t even include the original odds! For example, if a player brings in a $100 bet on the roulette wheel, there’s no way you can say with a 95% confidence that there is at most a 1/5 chance that the wheel will have a $50 return on it. The game has no probability of ending in $50, so at least 95% of the time, the wheel will end up being worth $1,100.

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The group in question was exploring a game that I would consider to be a wager/spin. As a spin requires not only an action but a subjective consideration of whether or not that action increased odds or not, I decided to simply see what poker books have odds on their spins. In turn, I wanted to see whether they would act as strong lucks in a game where outcome/intention is more subjective.

Are slot machines rigged?

Until more data comes in from State Farm Insurance, it’s hard to know exactly how widespread the scams might be, and how often they are being perpetrated.

Some investigators who spoke to ABC News say they have found “extensive evidence of fakery and manipulation” in the vast majority of these kinds of companies. But even with that arsenal of information, it’s difficult to prove a person is trying to swindle their way into financial trouble, they caution.

“Is slot machine rigging a general problem in competitive lottery games?” To narrow this question down, we looked at each state’s allowable maximum number of slot machines. We then took each state’s 4-year baseline with respect to other states’ allowable maximum number of slot machines and divided the number of games by the population in the state to estimate the state’s average wage-equivalent income of winning a slot. The average wage-equivalent income we found was obtained using linear regression to examine the relationship between allowable slot machines in a state and how often it is won.

Should you tip a casino host?

Sometimes it is the comfort and security that you receive as a guest. When you tip a house, you are feeling secure. Let’s be real, there is no other way to feel confident. When you feel safe, people around you feel safe. You also feel better about themselves. At the end of the day, as people that we are, we are judged by how we are being. Whether we like it or not, we are judged on our spending habits. If you don’t tip, then you lose. Therefore, there is no other way to feel confident. Even if a casino host or a casino employee apologizes and says they feel very bad that you don’t tip, they are still human and they still make mistakes.

Don’t tip your bartender, masseuse, or host unless they are cleaning their tables or serving you. If your bartender, masseuse, or host wins at a casino, the bankroll that is given to that gambler comes out of your money. When those employees are washing down your dinner, you’re not using your hard-earned dollars for your own dinner, so they shouldn’t get a tip. If you are tipping a hose to wash down your dinner, it should be as little as 10 percent of the cost, not 10 percent of the drink’s cost.

How much money can you win at a casino without paying taxes?

The IRS estimated that roughly 34 percent of Americans earned more than $1 million annually in 2010. Even in this highly taxed, highly regulated industry, the average tax bill per person was about $2,200.

At slot machines alone, an average two-person group can win nearly $100,000 in about 40 minutes, whereas a single player can make roughly $11,300 in eight minutes. At Roulette, the most popular slot game in the Mr Bet casino , a typical group of four people can win a total of $1,500,000 in a little over an hour. The average 25-year-old has lost $46,500 playing roulette in their lifetime.

That’s right, $200,000. That’s $200,000 you could play. No way you can lose that much money. So I think that is a good rule of thumb.

The solution to your challenge is that you have to be careful that you don’t put the money in the system in ways that you cannot get it back. But I think there are many ways to live and work in a way that’s beneficial to the environment and to the people in it. You can travel to other places, you can utilize public transportation, you can recycle your materials.

According to ABC News, the government publishes statistics on the number of money members of Congress made in 2012, including the amounts received in 2012 from individual contributions and other committees and leadership PACs. Based on a review of these documents, here are the specific amounts of money raised and spent by members of Congress in 2012:

Members of Congress raised an estimated $1,457,875,134.68 from individual contributions.

Individual contributions for each congressional office ranged from $1,430,465 to $5,959,893.38. The bottom five lawmakers raised an average of $277,374 from individual contributions.

Should you max bet on a slot machine?

On most slot machines, you only pay if your bet pays out. The smallest possible amount you have to bet to win that quarter of a million dollars is $1, while the largest possible payout is still $1.5 million. The difference between these two estimates is the difference in the chance of winning the jackpot; if you have a one in 5 million chance of winning the jackpot, then the chance of winning the jackpot will be $5 million to $1.5 million.

22 Jan

About Poker Chips

Professional Poker Chips

A chip for poker (also called a chip) is a small disc used instead of money in casinos or poker clubs. Chips, according to the material of manufacture, can be: ceramic, clay or ABS plastic. They are mainly used in board games. Chips are widely used in sports poker tournaments.

Some casinos and clubs at high betting games (from $ 25000 and above) use chips. A plaque differs from a chip in that it is larger and usually has a rectangular shape. Also, the crybabies in the casino have their serial numbers.

Using chips for poker

Money at the casino or club is exchanged for chips at the cash desk, game table or special exchange office. Poker chips are equal in value to money at the casino/club. Outside the casino(club), however, they are of no value, although some casinos in Las Vegas do accept chips from other casinos.


Chips are used in casinos for several reasons: they are more convenient to use than paper money, they are harder to steal or fake. Because they are the same size, they are easier to count in stacks (stacks) compared to paper notes when used on a table. Chips also allow the pit boss or security team to quickly check the amount of payment, reducing the chance that the dealer may miscalculate the customer. The unified weight of each chip for casino poker allows you to quickly determine the total value of all chips in a large stack by total weight, although it is more common to count using standardized chip trays. Players are also more free to handle the chips when playing than they are with cash.

Finally, the chips are considered an integral part of the casino atmosphere and any way to replace them with an alternative currency will not be popular among players.

Original chips for poker is a huge industry of numismatics. This hobby is becoming more and more popular around the world. Chips & Gaming Tokens Club was founded in 1988. The cost of some chips exceeds $50,000. Some casinos sell sets of chips for poker with one or two original deck of cards and casino/club logo on them. A set of chips will fit in your case or suitcase.

History of Poker Chips

Although the first gambling houses were legalized in Venice in 1626, the chips, as we now know them, have not been used for two hundred years. Back in the 1800s, players used to play any small valuable objects such as coins, gold nuggets, gold sand. Later chips began to appear, primarily from ivory, wood, paper and a mixture of clay.

Between the 1880s and the late 1930s, several companies made the first clay poker chips. Over 1000 varieties were produced. Most of the chips were white, red, blue and yellow, but nowadays they can be almost any desired color.

The composition and production of poker chips

The vast majority of authentic poker chips are ceramic or clay chips. Clay chips can be more accurately described as chips made by compression molding. Contrary to the popular belief that 100% clay chips have been widely used since the 1950s, modern clay chips are made from materials, allowing for an increased durability of the chip. Different ratios of materials are used in the production of poker chips, such as: sand, calcium carbonate, chalk and clay.


The process used to manufacture the chips is a trade secret and can vary slightly from manufacturer to manufacturer, most of these processes are considered relatively expensive and time consuming. To apply a drawing on the rib of the chips, it is necessary to remove part of the clay, and then replace it with clay of a different color, this operation should be done for each chip individually or, to reduce the time of manufacture, at the stage of forming a cylindrical shape, for subsequent cutting into individual chips, cut out strips of clay and replace them with clay of an alternative color. In this case, each chip gets the original decor of the rib and the edge of the front side.

Then the chips are placed in a special form, where they are heated and compressed by pressure about 10,000 PSI (70 MPa) at a temperature of 300 ° F (149 ° C), hence the name of the compression molding method.

Ceramic chips were introduced in the mid-1980s as an alternative to clay chips, and are very common in casinos and are also easily available for purchase. Ceramic chips for poker are often mentioned by some vendors as clay chips or made of composite clay, but they are actually made by injection molding of certain plastics and resins that bring the feel and sound of these chips closer to the clay chips.

Printed graphics on ceramic chips is called inlay. Inlays, usually made of paper coated with a thin plastic film, are applied to the chip before the compression molding process. During the forming process, the decoration becomes an integral part of the chip and cannot be separated from the chip without destroying it.

Chips used in casinos in America rarely weigh more than 10 grams, their weight is usually between 8.5 and 10 grams.


There is no universal weight for chips, however, some chips are encrusted with metal tokens to increase their weight. Chips for home use have a significantly larger weight range, sometimes weighing up to 16 g, depending on the manufacturer and manufacturing technology.

A common design for home use is the image of six faces of playing dice (dice) or card suits at the edges of the face of a poker chip. They are usually manufactured using ABS plastic injection molding technology. Some chips are formed around a small metal disc, called a token, to increase weight.
Pearlescent poker chips are also often used in Europe.

Poker chip sewing technology

Each casino has its own unique chips, even if the casino is part of a larger company, as each chip at the gaming table must be backed by an appropriate amount of money. In addition, with the exception of the State of Nevada, the use of chips from third party casinos is not allowed in the casino.

Chip protection elements for casinos are numerous: The image on the chip is usually of very high resolution or photographic quality; combinations of colors on the edges of the chip are usually specific to the casino. Ultraviolet marking of the chip is possible. Some chips for poker have an embedded RFID chip, such chips are used in the new Wynn casino in Las Vegas.

Cases of detection of counterfeit chips for poker are very rare. The high level of control and monitoring of everything that happens on the territory of the casino/club does not leave a chance for fraudsters to counterfeit poker chips. But the casino, however, is ready for this situation. At any moment the casino has the right to remove all chips from the gaming tables and replace them with new ones with alternative markings. Regulatory documents require each casino to have an additional stock of alternatively marked poker chips, although the number of backup chips does not necessarily have to match the number of basic poker chips.

Poker chip variants

Some casinos, such as Hard Rock Hotel & Casino in Las Vegas, produce limited edition chips (“Limited Edition”) dedicated to different events, while maintaining the overall color scheme. This encourages customers to buy them as souvenirs, bringing additional revenue to the casino.
Some casinos, such as Wynn Encore & Casino in Las Vegas, use chips with integrated radio frequency beacons to better track the chips at their tables and to determine the average betting size at each table, as well as to make them more difficult to reproduce by scammers. However, this method is expensive and many experts see it as unnecessary and does not affect the profit of the institution.